1990-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and a partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, a steering
- 12. A body
12.2. Maintenance service and repair
12.3. A forward bumper
12.4. A back bumper
12.5. A cowl
+ 12.6. A rope of opening of a cowl
12.7. The cowl lock
12.9. The internal panel of furnish of a door
12.10. A frame of a window of a door
12.11. The handle of a door and lock elements
12.12. Glass and window lifter
12.13. A luggage carrier cover
12.14. Elements of the lock of a cover of a luggage carrier
12.15. A back door
12.16. Elements of the lock of a back door
12.17. Elements of the central lock
+ 12.18. Elements electric window lifterов
12.19. Rear-view mirrors and the elements connected with them
12.20. Front and back glass
12.21. The top hatch
12.22. External elements of furnish of a body
12.24. The mechanism of a tension of forward seat belts
12.25. Elements of seat belts
12.26. Panels of furnish of salon
12.27. The central console
12.28. The panel of devices
+ 13. An electric equipment
+ 14. A good advice
The condition in which there is a body of your car, is very important, because its cost depends on it in the big degree at resale. It is much more difficult to repair the started or damaged body, than mechanical parts. The latent cavities of a body, such as niches of wheels, a frame and a motor compartment also are important not less in spite of the fact that they do not demand frequent attention, as other parts of a body.
Once a year, or each 20 000 km, the bottom of a body by means of steam is very useful to clear. All traces of a dirt and oil will be removed, and after this area it will be possible to check up on presence of the rust, the damaged brake highways, the worn out electric wires, the damaged ropes and so on. In the end of this work it is necessary to grease components of a forward suspension bracket.
Simultaneously clear the engine and a motor compartment with the help пароочистителя or adaptations for greasing removal.
The special attention is necessary for turning on niches of wheels as the substrate can exfoliate, both stones and a dirt, thrown out by wheels, can damage a paint and allow to appear to a rust. If you have found out a rust, smooth out the damaged surface to the metal and put on it an anticorrosive paint.
It is necessary to wash a body, at least, once a week. Carefully wet the car to soften a dirt, and then смойте it by means of a soft sponge and a considerable quantity of soap water. If carefully not to wash off a dirt, it can erase a paint.
Tar or bitumen stains are necessary for clearing by means of a fabric moistened in solvent.
At least, each six months polish a body and the chromeplated details. If you use a cleaner for the chromeplated parts to remove a rust from details with гальванопокрытием, remember that the cleaner also deletes honour of chrome so use it cautiously.
Never clear vinyl furnish with the help washing-up liquids, каустическим soap or cleaners on the basis of kerosene. Simple soap, and water work simply perfectly well, and a soft brush it is possible to remove an inveterate dirt easily. Wash vinyl furnish also often, as well as all car.
After clearing application of high-quality protective means for rubber and vinyl surfaces will help to avoid oxidation and occurrence of cracks. Protective means can also is put on уплотнители glasses, vacuum highways and rubber hoses which often fail as a result of chemical destruction, and also on tyres.
Upholstery and rugs – leaving
Each three months remove rugs and clear the car inside (if it is necessary, do it more often). A vacuum cleaner clear an upholstery and rugs to remove the remained dirt and a dust.
The leather upholstery demands special attention. Stains are necessary for deleting warm water and very soft soap solution. Take advantage of pure rags to remove soap, and then again wipe an upholstery a dry rag. Never use spirit, gasoline, a liquid for removal of a varnish or a thinner for clearing of a leather upholstery.
After clearing regularly process a leather upholstery special wax. Never use automobile wax for polishing of a leather upholstery.
There, where the car interior is treated to action of solar beams, close leather seats sheets if the car is left on the sun during any time.
Repair of small scratches
If the scratch superficial also does not mention body metal, repair is very simple. Slightly rub the scratched surface with thin polishing structure to remove a friable paint and wax. Wash out a surface pure water.
Put a paint for подкрашивания on a scratch by means of a small brush. Continue to put thin paint coats until the paint completely will not fill a scratch. Allow to a new paint to dry up, at least, within two weeks, and then mix it with surrounding paint, заполировав the painted area by means of thin polishing structure. And, at last, put the top layer of wax on the scratched surface.
If the scratch has got through a paint and has damaged body metal, having caused rust occurrence, it is necessary to apply other procedure of repair. Remove a rust from the basis of a scratch by means of a pocket knife, and then put an anticorrosive paint to prevent rust occurrence in the future. Having taken advantage rubber or nylon аппликатором, cover the scratched area with a glaze (a glaze – a translucent paint layer). Before the glaze in a scratch will harden, place a piece of a smooth cotton fabric round a finger-tip. Ship a fabric in a thinner, and then quickly spend it round a scratch surface. It will help you will be convinced that a glaze surface slightly hollow. Now it is possible to paint over a scratch.
Repair of dents
During carrying out of repair of dents the first that it is necessary to make, it to correct a dent that the damaged place was as is possible more close to the initial form. There is no sense to try to restore completely the initial form as metal in the damaged place is stretched, and it cannot be restored to an initial contour. It is better to level a dent so that its level was approximately on 3 mm below level of surrounding metal.
In a case if the dent very small, in general is not present sense it to level.
If the dent is in such part of a body which has a double layer, or something else does impossible access from within, it is necessary to apply other procedure. Drill some small apertures in metal in the damaged surface, mainly in the deepest parts. Screw in long, self-cut screws in apertures so that they have entered into strong gearing with metal. Now it is possible to correct a dent, having pulled for acting heads of screws by means of flat-nose pliers.
The following stage of repair this removal of a paint from the damaged surface and from surrounding metal approximately on 2,5 see It becomes by means of a wire brush or a disk for the polishing, put on a drill, however with not smaller efficiency it can be made manually by means of an emery paper. To finish preparations to шпатлевке, smooth out a screw-driver or a file a surface of the bared metal, or drill small apertures in the damaged area. It will provide good coupling of metal and a glaze.
Repairing of apertures from a rust or cracks
Remove all paint from the damaged surface and from surrounding metal in radius approximately 2,5 sm, having taken advantage of an emery paper or the wire brush, put on a drill. If they are inaccessible, this work can be made manually by means of several sheets of an emery paper.
Having peeled the paint, you can define degree of corrosion and solve, whether replace the whole panel or if it is possible, to repair the damaged surface. New panels of a body are not too expensive, as many people think, and very often much faster to establish the new panel, than to repair the big surface damaged by a rust.
Remove all parts of decorative furnish from the damaged area, except for what operate as the directing initial form of the damaged body of the car, such as the headlight case, and so on. Having taken advantage of scissors on metal or ножовочным a cloth, remove all damaged metal, and also any other metal on which there are rust traces. A hammer bend aperture edges inside to create small dredging for a filling material.
Wire brush smooth out the damaged surface to remove порошкообразную a rust from a metal surface. If there is an access to a back part of a rusty surface, cover with its anticorrosive paint.
Before definitive заделкой закупорьте in any way an aperture. It can be made by means of a tin, приклепанной or screwed in in an aperture, or establish in an aperture a wire grid.
When the aperture will be corked, the damaged area can be filled and painted over.
Filling and painting
Now наполнителей the considerable quantity is accessible to body repair, however, to tell the truth, a set of details for body repair in which there is a filling paste, and a tube of a hardener of polymers is better approaches for carrying out of repair work. For you it will be necessary wide flexible plastic or nylon аппликатор for surface alignment шпатлевки. Mix a mix small amount шпатлевки on a pure wooden plate or картонке (economically spending a hardener). Follow instructions of manufacturers on packing, differently шпатлевка will harden incorrectly.
Using аппликатор, put filling paste on the prepared surface. Spend аппликатором on a surface шпатлевки to reach a desirable contour and to balance a surface шпатлевки. When initial level and a contour will be reached, stop work with paste. If you continue, paste will stick to аппликатору. Continue to put thin layers of paste with 20-minute intervals while level шпатлевки will precisely not correspond to level of surrounding metal.
When шпатлевка will harden, its surplus can be removed by means of a file. Further it is necessary to use an emery paper, gradually increasing its granularity, having begun with a paper with an indicator of granularity of 180 units and having finished a waterproof paper with an indicator of granularity of 600 units. Always reel up an emery paper on rubber or wooden брусок, differently the surface шпатлевки will not be completely flat. During surface polishing шпатлевки with an indicator of granularity of 600 units it is necessary to moisten a waterproof emery paper periodically in water. It will help to reach very smooth surface.
Now the ring of naked metal which, in turn, should be surrounded by the good intact paint should surround repair area. Wash out area of repair by water until all dust which has remained after polishing, will not be removed.
On all smoothed out surface apply a thin film a soil covering. It will help to find out all defects on a surface шпатлевки. Correct the found out defects by means of fresh шпатлевки or лассировки and once again smooth out a surface an emery paper. Repeat procedure of drawing of a first coat and шпатлевки until you will not be satisfied by quality of a surface шпатлевки and paint edges. Wash out a surface pure water and allow to it to dry up completely.
Now the repair area is ready to painting. Colouring by dispersion is necessary for carrying out at warm, dry, windless weather when in air there will be no dust. These conditions can be reached, if you have an access to the big industrial premise. However if you have to work in the open air, to choose day of painting it is necessary very carefully. If you work indoors, sprinkle water a floor. It will help you to beat a dust which differently can rise in air. If the repair area is on one panel of a body, close all surrounding panels. It will help you to minimise small discrepancy in colour paints. Decorative details of furnish, such as and so on, also it is necessary to disguise or remove chromic overlays, door handles. For masking take advantage of a sticky tape and several layers of a paper.
Before dispersion carefully shake up a paint, and then be trained to spray it to learn to do it correctly. Put a thick layer of a first coat on a repaired surface. It is better to put some thin layers, than one thick. By means of an emery paper with granularity of 600 units smooth out a first coat surface until it does not become very smooth. During carrying out of this operation the processed surface should be moistened with water carefully. The emery paper also is necessary for lowering periodically in water. Allow to a first coat to dry up before drawing of additional layers.
Spray a paint on the top layer, increasing its thickness by drawing of several layers. Start to spray a paint from the centre of repaired area, and then, using circular motions, process all repaired surface, and also approximately 5 sm of a surrounding paint. Remove all masking material in 10-15 minutes after drawing of last paint coat. Allow to a new paint to dry up, at least, two weeks, and then by means of very thin grinding structure make imperceptible transition from a new paint to initial. In work end put a wax layer.
Body repair – considerable damages
Considerable damages of a body are necessary for repairing at servicing deports on which there is an equipment for кузовного repair.
If extensive damages take place, it is necessary to check up body geometry. They also can affect characteristics of driving or lead to that other components will faster wear out.
Because of that all basic components of a body (a cowl, wings, etc.) represent separate elements with which it is possible to replace, is better to result their replacement, instead of repair. Sometimes demanded details can be found in shops on sale of second-hand spare parts that is much cheaper, than purchase of the new.
Loops and locks – maintenance service and repair
Each 5000 km, or each three months some drops маловязкого are necessary to put oils or greasings for locks on loops and latches on doors, a cowl and a luggage carrier. Latches of door-locks also it is necessary to cover with a thin layer консистентной greasings to reduce deterioration and to provide free movement. Grease locks of doors and a cowl with graphite greasing.
Windscreen and motionless glasses – replacement
Replacement of a windscreen and motionless glasses demands use special быстроотверждающегося glue or condensing structure and some specialised adaptations. These operations are recommended to be spent on car repair shops.