1990-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and a partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, a steering
+ 12. A body
+ 13. An electric equipment
- 14. A good advice
14.1.1. Changed numbers
14.1.2. Purchase of the old car or a mysterious set of figures and letters
14.2. Durability of the car
14.3. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.4. Preparation of the car for winter
14.5. It is not got – a good advice
14.6. From change of places "composed" varies nothing?
14.7. Visit to car-care centre
- 14.8. The engine
14.8.2. The analysis дымности an exhaust
14.8.3. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.8.4. A gear belt for a mechanism drive timing
14.8.5. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
+ 14.8.8. Bearings
+ 14.8.9. To owners of the car with the diesel engine
14.8.10. To owners of the car with инжекторным the engine
+ 14.9. The conditioner
+ 14.11. Three in one – or how to save the catalyst
+ 14.12. The accumulator
14.13. The generator
14.15. "Automatic machine"
+ 14.16. Brake system
+ 14.17. Wheels and tyres
14.8. The engine
|THE GENERAL DATA|
Whether all is perfectly in order with the car engine? Can it is time save money on carrying out of computer diagnostics, and even on repair? To answer these questions to you some councils of the autoengineer will help, it is a lot of years engaged in repair of import cars.
Before addressing to the doctor, each of us is engaged in self-diagnostics. Thus we do not do to ourselves рентгеноскопию, we do not use the electrocardiograph and other sophisticated devices. Simply we feel a forehead, we examine a throat, we listen, whether шкворчит in a breast, whether пучит a stomach, whether корежит a waist. From devices traditionally we use thermometers and, maybe, a watch at pulse measurement.
Here so, in a simple way, we define, whether the organism normally functions. And after all it turns out!
The car engine – the same organism. For its exact diagnosing and treatment there are many artful devices, adaptations and tools. Various exact techniques and the receptions demanding thin knowledge of the internal device are used. We plan to tell about them in detail in the near future.
To begin with we suggest to master more simple for understanding of a thing.
Let's try understand, on what it is necessary to pay attention, maintaining the car: that it is necessary to feel where to look, where to listen and, maybe, even to smell, to understand, how the engine feels. Do not wish to study together with us – get from a purse one hundred dollars and go on computer diagnostics. Automobile "health services" paid!
Present that you the kind doctor. Having entered into chamber (garage), approach to the patient (car), necessarily greet, tender, calming words tell to it some and suggest to undress to a belt (open a cowl).
Begin with external survey of the engine. Remember that nothing reflects internal well-being how pleasant, well-groomed appearance radiating with health.
Strong general impurity of the engine, no less than presence of intensive local leaks, on the contrary, testifies about reeled health. If in the evening, leaving the car, you have providently enclosed a newspaper blank leaf under the engine, take out it and examine. Leakings of oil and other operational liquids for a night will leave traces on which you can establish sources of leaks on the newspaper and define their intensity. The it above, the it is necessary to take measures on elimination of malfunctions more likely.
The following step – check and finishing to norm of level of all operational liquids. First of all us interest engine oil and охлаждаюшая a liquid (antifreeze) as their lack is most strongly reflected in engine technical characteristics.
It would be desirable to remind and about they be believe, I do not joke – that is necessary to be convinced available fuel of a tank. Practice shows that some inattentive drivers nearly to death torture a starter and the storage battery, having forgotten that before it is necessary to feed and give to drink the good fellow, and then – on a shovel and in the furnace.
At the same time check up a tension приводных belts of hinged units of the engine (the pump of system of cooling, the generator, the pump of the hydraulic booster of a wheel, the conditioner). Be convinced that belts do not sag and are not torn off. If everything is all right, shake off trousers and – for a wheel.
Before engine start
Do not hurry up at once to start the engine. Haste here to what! In the beginning turn a key in position "ignition"... As a rule, thus on the panel of devices of all modern cars a number of bulbs lights up. At the given stage us two especially interest.
The first – a bulb of emergency pressure of the oil, the second – a control lamp подзаряда the accumulator which specifies in readiness of the generator to get into gear after engine start. Both at the included ignition even before engine start should burn with bright red light. And if one of them does not burn? If the bulb подзаряда was not lighted, these are half-troubles if the bulb of emergency pressure of oil does not light up is disturbing "звоночек". Be attentive, you have lost the control over greasing system! Pressure of oil in the engine – the basic indicator of serviceability of the unit. Without supervising pressure of oil, you risk to "have" major repairs of the engine with all consequences following from it.
The cause of defect consists or in bad contact the plug-gauge, or in the gauge. To search for the gauge, as a rule, follows around the oil filter. Malfunction needs to be eliminated. Only after you were convinced that everything is all right, start the engine.
The serviceable engine with well adjusted systems of giving of fuel and ignition and the serviceable storage battery is started from one attempt within 3–5 seconds. Stably arising problems with "cold" start-up testify to malfunctions. We will assume, we have avoided it, and the engine was started...
We look at the panel of devices. Two bulbs about which there was a speech above, are obliged to go out.
The possible reasons: low level of oil, is faulty the gauge of pressure of oil; the grid маслоприемника the oil pump is hammered; the oil pump is faulty; the big deterioration radical and шатунных bearings of a cranked shaft.
If pressure of oil is perfectly in order, we start engine inspection in a warming up mode.
Engine warming up
Frequency of turns of not heated-up engine approximately in 1,5 times exceeds passport frequency of idling, a component usually 700–900 rpm, and should decrease smoothly in process of growth of temperature of the engine.
After the lapse of 7–10 minutes from the moment of start-up the engine temperature should reach level of an order 80 ° With and be stabilised (as well as single turns).
If your car is equipped by a tachometre and стрелочным the device showing temperature of the cooling liquid, this process is easy for checking.
When warming up proceeds under the above described scenario, the system of idling and system of cooling of the engine work normally.
If the temperature of the engine does not reach the necessary level the valve-thermostat, most likely, is guilty. The reasons of an overheat of the engine much more and they are reflected in the technical inquiry.
After the engine will enough get warm, and idling turns are stabilised (you learn about it from indications of control devices), time will come to listen, as the motor sings.
Beautiful, sonorous voice – a healthy organism
Doctors assure that in relation to the person this statement is completely fair. The same it is possible to tell and about the engine.
The serviceable engine publishes a uniform rumble and "ticks", as hours. Some masters say that he "whispers". Despite figurativeness of expressions, you have for certain understood that they mean.
If the engine works non-uniformly, with failures, periodically vibrates, know: it testifies to its malfunction. Sometimes malfunctions – a consequence of deterioration of details of the engine and compression falling in cylinders, but more often the reasons are негерметичность the inlet path, the littered air filter, failures in work of system of ignition and fuel system. It would be desirable to stop on those cases when the engine as speak, "троит", that is one of cylinders does not work.
Using a method of a serial detachment of high-voltage wires from spark plugs, to find "saboteur" simply. As soon as you will get on the faulty cylinder, the engine kind of work will not change.
Frequently the cause of defect can be defined having examined a spark plug. It allows to learn a lot of the interesting engine about a condition.
It is necessary to mention extraneous noise and knocks. At once we will make a reservation that the similar method of diagnostics is "the higher pilotage" and on forces not all to professionals.
Motorists should mean that any sharp metal sounds testify about неиправности. If they are "published" by hinged units (the generator, a pomp, the hydraulic booster) are half-troubles. To define "originator" of noise it is possible, consistently removing приводные belts of these units. If after removal of the next belt the extraneous sound has disappeared, shake a corresponding pulley for definition radial and axial люфта bearings. More often they are disturbers of calmness.
With much bigger troubles the knocks which are starting with a belly of the motor threaten. To them listen on various power setting by means of an automobile stethoscope or if it is not present, a dry stick in diameter about 10 mm from firm wood (it press to a cheekbone below an ear lobe). Such way possible to reveal defects газораспределительного the mechanism, tsilindro-piston group, krivoshipno-shatunnogo the mechanism.
Once again we will underline that to make the diagnosis, ear for music insufficiently, it is necessary to have professional experience and excellent knowledge "матчасти".