+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and a partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, a steering
+ 12. A body
+ 13. An electric equipment
- 14. A good advice
14.1.1. Changed numbers
14.1.2. Purchase of the old car or a mysterious set of figures and letters
14.2. Durability of the car
14.3. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.4. Preparation of the car for winter
14.5. It is not got – a good advice
14.6. From change of places "composed" varies nothing?
14.7. Visit to car-care centre
- 14.8. The engine
14.8.2. The analysis дымности an exhaust
14.8.3. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.8.4. A gear belt for a mechanism drive timing
14.8.5. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
+ 14.8.8. Bearings
+ 14.8.9. To owners of the car with the diesel engine
14.8.10. To owners of the car with инжекторным the engine
+ 14.9. The conditioner
+ 14.11. Three in one – or how to save the catalyst
+ 14.12. The accumulator
14.13. The generator
14.15. "Automatic machine"
+ 14.16. Brake system
+ 14.17. Wheels and tyres
Inzhektornye motors surpass carburettor in many parametres, to take at least their profitability and problemless start in a frost. Nevertheless, carburettor under our conditions sometimes appear more advantageous. And even some motor-car manufacturers deliver on our market of the car with such engines. All business – as gasoline which sell at us.
The inzhektornyj engine is calculated on high-grade gasoline which on our refuellings you will find not often. Besides, different systems of injection have the specific features, they are necessary for considering at car operation. And in our market it is a lot of such systems: with mechanical injection "To (КЕ)-Jetronic", electromechanical "L-Jetronic" and electronic – "Motronic", "Lucas", "Marelli".
Many systems have two operating modes: the basic and emergency – at malfunction of one of gauges. The driver can and not notice such malfunction: on the instrument panel there is no alarm signal, and the engine continues to work (but any more in an optimum mode). Similar quite often happens in "Audi-80" with the central injection. About third of the motorists having such cars, do not guess at all that go in emergency operation. And it conducts to the raised expense of fuel, decrease in capacity, rough work of the engine and the complicated start-up. Malfunction comes to light only during the next servicing. Therefore on "the weak" places of each system shown under our conditions, it is necessary to dwell.
Systems with mechanical injection. They in a greater degree, than others, are subject to physical deterioration. The regulator of pressure of fuel refuses usually through 80-120 thousand in km of run (engine start considerably worsens), an atomizer – through 60-80 thousand (rough work of the motor, the raised expense of fuel). Refusal of atomizers is especially artful, as it not at once will notice. For diagnosing and repair the special equipment is required.
Sore point of systems with electromechanical injection – подсос air through the numerous vacuum hoses tending to растрескиванию after 4–5 years of service. In particular on АMW and, in some smaller degree, on "Audi". To reveal such defect difficult enough.
At electronic systems – the problems. For example, the accumulator "has sat down", and you on an old habit have decided to "light" from other car. The electronic block as a result fails. And application этилированного gasoline, in turn, will put out of commission a ljambda-probe and the catalyst.
As a whole, both mechanical, and electronic systems of injection have the pluses and minuses. At mechanical the thicket is refused by gasoline pumps and dozatory-distributors. At electronic the gasoline pump is more durable and is cheaper, but any malfunction of the computer will cost much. Besides, the reasons for failure of any system at us, alas, more than in the Western Europe or America: poor-quality gasoline, a dirt on roads and chemicals with which them strew. Therefore it is necessary to listen to recommendations of experts. Try to use import gasoline if there is such possibility; for removal of a moisture from топливопроводов at each refuelling fill in in a tank a special preparation; through each 10 000-15 000 km of run do full washing of system of injection.
One more feature: any failure fixes the computer. And even after replacement of a faulty detail it will give out incorrect commands – until failure "not will erase" at the special stand.